Corneal Diseases

The eye is like a camera in which lenses focus the picture on a light sensitive film. In the human eye, the transparent cornea and lens focus light on the retina, which changes it into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve to be perceived as images.

The cornea is the front transparent window of the eye and forms the outermost one-sixth of the eyeball. It is lamellar in nature (like plywood) and is made up of 5 layers, each of which has a definite function. In order to be effective it must remain transparent. Freezing, heating, molding, lathing, tattooing, excising, incising and transplanting are all means by which the delicate and sensitive cornea has been altered for optical, therapeutic purposes. Due to absence of blood vessels in the cornea, much of its oxygen requirement comes from atmospheric oxygen dissolved in the tear film. When the eyelids are closed, oxygen enters the cornea from the superficial conjunctival vessels. Nutrients needed for the cornea pass into it by diffusion. Hence, carbon dioxide and waste products are also removed across the tear film. Hence, any deficiency of the tear film will directly or indirectly affect the cornea.

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